Frankenstein by Mary Shelley


Frankenstein by Mary Shelley

Plot and Storyline

Frankenstein, written by Mary Shelley and published in 1818, is a seminal work of Gothic literature that explores themes of creation, ambition, and the consequences of playing God. The novel follows the life of Victor Frankenstein, a young Swiss scientist who becomes obsessed with unlocking the secret of life and creating a living being. Victor is successful in bringing his creature to life through his experiments, but he rejects it right away because of its horrifying appearance.

The story unfolds through a series of narratives, with Victor recounting his tale to Captain Robert Walton, an explorer he encounters in the Arctic. Victor’s creation, referred to as the Creature or the Monster, goes on a journey of self-discovery and experiences rejection and isolation from society due to its terrifying appearance. The creature seeks revenge on Victor for abandoning it and causing its suffering, leading to a tragic chain of events that culminate in the destruction of both creator and creation.


The novel primarily focuses on two main characters: Victor Frankenstein and his Creature. Victor is a brilliant and ambitious scientist who seeks knowledge and the ability to create life. However, his unchecked ambition and inability to take responsibility for his creation ultimately lead to his downfall. Victor undergoes a transformation throughout the story, starting as an idealistic and ambitious young man, but descending into guilt, madness, and despair.

The creature, initially portrayed as a hideous monster, is a complex and sympathetic character. Despite its physical appearance, the creature possesses intelligence, sensitivity, and a longing for human connection. It learns about the world through observation and reading and yearns for acceptance and love. However, the rejection and mistreatment it faces from society drives it to seek revenge on Victor, setting in motion a tragic cycle of violence and despair.

Other notable characters include Elizabeth Lavenza, Victor’s adopted sister and love interest; Henry Clerval, Victor’s loyal friend; and Alphonse Frankenstein, Victor’s father. These characters provide insight into Victor’s motivations, relationships, and the moral dilemmas he faces.

Themes and Symbols

Frankenstein explores several major themes, including the dangers of unchecked ambition, the nature of humanity, and the consequences of alienation and isolation. One central theme is the pursuit of knowledge and scientific progress without ethical boundaries. Victor’s relentless ambition to create life highlights the moral and ethical implications of playing God and the potential dangers of scientific advancement.

The novel also delves into the theme of the nature of humanity. The Creature, despite its monstrous appearance, displays human emotions, desires, and capacity for both good and evil. Shelley prompts readers to question what truly defines humanity and challenges the notion that physical appearance determines one’s worth.

Symbols play a significant role in the novel. The Creature itself symbolizes the consequences of unchecked ambition and the dangers of isolation and rejection. Its physical appearance serves as a metaphor for the alienation it experiences and the societal prejudices it faces. The Arctic setting symbolizes the desolation and emotional isolation experienced by both Victor and the Creature.

Writing Style

Mary Shelley’s writing style in Frankenstein is characterized by its poetic language, vivid descriptions, and introspective narrative. She employs a frame narrative structure, using multiple layers of storytelling to enhance the reader’s engagement with the themes and characters.

Shelley’s use of language and imagery creates a dark and atmospheric tone throughout the novel. She skillfully evokes a sense of horror and suspense, heightening the reader’s emotional response. For example, in describing the creation of the Creature, Shelley writes, “It was on a dreary night of November that I beheld the accomplishment of my toils… the rain pattered dismally against the panes.” Such passages immerse the reader in the eerie and foreboding world of the story.

Setting and Atmosphere

The novel is set in various locations, including Geneva, Ingolstadt, and the Arctic. These settings contribute to the atmospheric and psychological tone of the story. Geneva, Victor’s hometown, represents a place of domestic bliss and eventual tragedy. Ingolstadt, where Victor attends university, symbolizes the realm of scientific exploration and the dangers of uncontrolled experimentation. The Arctic setting amplifies the isolation and despair experienced by the characters and serves as a backdrop for the final confrontation between Victor and the Creature.

Historical, Social, or Political Context

Frankenstein reflects the historical, social, and political context of the early 19th century, known as the Romantic era. The novel emerged during a period of scientific advancements, industrialization, and societal change. Shelley’s portrayal of Victor’s scientific pursuits and the ethical dilemmas they raise can be seen as a critique of the unchecked progress of the Industrial Revolution and the potential dehumanization it may bring.

Furthermore, the novel reflects the social anxieties and gender dynamics of the time. Shelley explores the role of women and the limitations placed on them within society. Elizabeth and Justine, female characters in the novel, embody the idealized roles of womenwithin the domestic sphere, while the absence of strong female voices in the scientific and intellectual realms is notable.

Impact and Reception

Frankenstein had a significant impact on literature and continues to be widely studied and celebrated. It is considered one of the foundational works of science fiction and Gothic literature. The novel’s exploration of moral and ethical questions, the dangers of scientific ambition, and the complexities of human nature have resonated with readers for centuries.

The reception of Frankenstein upon its initial publication was mixed. Some critics praised its originality and depth, while others criticized its dark themes and unconventional narrative structure. However, over time, the novel gained recognition as a groundbreaking work of literature.

Frankenstein has since become a cultural icon, inspiring countless adaptations in various forms of media, including films, plays, and artwork. Its themes and characters have been reimagined and reinterpreted in numerous contexts, further cementing its cultural significance.

How does Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein challenge societal norms and expectations regarding gender roles?

Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein challenges societal norms and expectations regarding gender roles through its portrayal of female characters and their limited roles within the narrative. In the novel, female characters such as Elizabeth and Justine are primarily portrayed as passive, nurturing figures within the domestic sphere. They embody the idealized roles of women in 19th-century society, emphasizing their beauty, purity, and devotion to their male counterparts.

However, Shelley also subtly critiques these gender expectations by highlighting the limitations placed on women within the novel’s patriarchal society. Female characters lack agency and are often marginalized in the realms of science and intellectual pursuits. For example, while Victor pursues his scientific ambitions, the novel lacks strong female voices in those fields. This absence suggests that women were excluded from participating in scientific endeavors, reinforcing the prevailing gender norms of the time.

Additionally, the novel explores the consequences of confining women to traditional roles. Elizabeth, who represents the epitome of feminine virtue, becomes a victim of the tragic events unleashed by Victor’s ambition. Her passivity and devotion are ultimately unable to protect her from the destructive forces at play.

By challenging the limitations placed on women and depicting the dire consequences of adhering strictly to societal gender roles, Shelley critiques the gender dynamics of her time and invites readers to question and reimagine the role of women in society.

How does Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein address the ethical implications of scientific progress and the pursuit of knowledge?

Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein deeply engages with the ethical implications of scientific progress and the pursuit of knowledge. Through the character of Victor Frankenstein and his creation of the creature, the novel raises profound questions about the responsibilities of scientists and the potential dangers of playing God.

Victor’s relentless pursuit of knowledge and ambition to create life demonstrate the consequences of unchecked scientific exploration. Shelley highlights the moral dilemmas inherent in such pursuits, emphasizing the importance of considering the ethical boundaries of scientific advancements. Victor’s actions, driven by his desire for glory and discovery, ultimately lead to disastrous consequences, as he fails to anticipate the moral and social implications of his creation.

The novel also explores the theme of responsibility, and the duty scientists have towards their creations. Victor’s initial abandonment of the creature, his failure to provide guidance or nurture, and his refusal to take responsibility for his actions underscore the ethical failings of his scientific endeavor. The creature, a product of scientific experimentation, suffers from neglect and rejection, leading it to seek revenge on its creator and ultimately causing tragic consequences for both.

Shelley’s portrayal of the ethical implications of scientific progress serves as a cautionary tale, urging readers to consider the potential consequences and responsibilities that come with the pursuit of knowledge. By presenting a narrative in which unchecked ambition and scientific exploration lead to destruction and suffering, she raises important questions about the moral and ethical boundaries that should guide scientific discovery and innovation.

In conclusion, Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein is a literary masterpiece that explores profound themes, creates memorable characters, and challenges conventional notions of science, ambition, and humanity. Through its gripping plot, evocative writing style, and thought-provoking symbolism, the novel continues to captivate readers and provoke meaningful discussions about the human condition and the consequences of our actions.


Frankenstein – Wikipedia

Frankenstein | Character & Facts | Britannica

Frankenstein: The 1818 Text by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley | Goodreads